Reporting from New York in June 1943, Dorothy Thompson of The Evening Citizen (Ottawa, Canada) told the public: "From the beginning Hitler hoped to win this war largely by diplomatic means. His strategy was to achieve critical positions – Austria, Czecho-Slovakia, and, possibly Poland, by diplomacy, follow these diplomatic gains by short blitzes, then return to diplomacy, and thus resolve the war that way. Thus, before the attack on Poland, he offered the pact to Russia; after the fall of Poland he offered peace to France and Britain; after the successful blitz against the Low Countries (northwest Europe) and France, he offered peace to Britain. Before the campaign against Russia, he offered an alliance to Britain, after outright alliance had been refused by Russia. 

"Machiavelli remarks that all despots maintain their power by the same means through which they achieve it. Hitler conquered Germany itself by a combination of force and internal diplomacy. Like most politicians, and like all paranoiacs, he hopes continually to repeat a successful pattern. No matter what the fortunes of the Third Reich were, Hitler would nevertheless attempt the diplomatic method of achieving his aims. But since his fortunes are low, his efforts are desperate. And it is significant that he is no longer trying to deal directly, but indirectly, through his satellites. 

"Hitler has passed the climax of his power. He has won everything he could win, and if he could hold it, would emerge as the greatest conqueror since Alexander. Ten years from now (say 1953) his German empire – if he could get a negotiated peace leaving him all or most of what he has – would be the greatest power on earth, and invincible. 'Leaving him all' by no means depends upon incorporation of the territories he occupies into the German Reich. Puppet and satellite governments would be as useful for his purposes. All he needs is a European system dominated by a German central power, plus the dissolution of the present Grand Alliance between the Anglo-American countries and the Soviet Union. 

"Now, putting oneself for a moment, into the mind of Hitler, how does he think he can achieve this? He had hoped to achieve it by knocking out the Russian armies. Now he knows he is not going to succeed in this. His agents are even admitting it openly. A principle of German propaganda has been, in the past, never to admit any weakness. So, if they themselves admit that it is impossible to defeat Russia, it is not because of love of truth, but because Hitler is playing a diplomatic game. Hitler's games are never played openly. One always has to ask oneself why he is doing what he is, since the obvious answer is seldom the right one. 

"The statement that the German armies are unable to defeat the Russian armies could have 2 political objectives: to come to peace terms with the Russians, or, to appeal to the West for salvation from the Russians. Either is a threat to the Anglo-American alliance with Russia. He pursues his attempt to drive a rift in subtle ways. First, he announces that he has been negotiating with the Russians – not openly, but in such a manner that can repudiate it if desirable. Then he pushes into the foreground those of his satellites whom the world regards as pitiable victims. Romania lets it be known that she desires to get out of the war. Undoubtedly Romania does, but it also serves Hitler's purposes at this moment. The military consequences of such a step would be negligible for the Germans. The Romanian military strength has been pulverized in 2 years of war in Russia. Whether Romania would be able to withdraw from Russia the remnants of its divisions is doubtful. There would be advantages for Germany were Romania to be safe from invasion and bombing. It is the source of much of Hitler's oil. 

"In a political sense Romania would be Nazi-occupied territory in any case. German influence is strong enough to overthrow any government that it chooses and recognize another one. It is impossible to 'liberate' Romania before the German armies are defeated. But in the diplomatic field, the negotiations are advantageous for Germany. Hitler was delighted to instigate a quarrel between Poland and the Soviet Union, over the question of the future border line and the treatment of Polish officers in Russia. Now, he hopes to make another dispute, over the question of Romania. If the Western powers should accept any Romanian offers without having previously reached an absolute agreement with Russia there again would be a rift. 

"And, if we begin to negotiate with Fascist and collaborationist government, we soften up the resolution not to negotiate with Hitler himself or some representative of Hitler. We can count on being in, for months, for this kind of political warfare. There are questions that must always be asked when peace feelers are put out. Do they emanate from really independent governments? And – is there absolute agreement between ourselves and Russia? Let us be cautious lest we be seduced by what is, apparently, a diplomatic success for ourselves. Hitler’s peace offers, direct or indirect, have always been full of booby traps." 

Background: Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau Austria. In 1912, Hitler moved to Munich. His political party was created in 1920. In 1925 Hitler renounced his Austrian citizenship. Then in February 1932 "Herr Hitler" was made a citizen of Brunswick, hence he became a citizen of Germany. A friend, Max Sixtl remembered in 1936, "Adolf was a born leader even as a little fellow...He had great magnetism, talked so that he kept us boys spellbound. His great theme was action and conquest." 

Chancellor Franz von Papen was born on October 29 1879, to an aristocratic Roman Catholic, Westphalian family with a lineage traceable to Charlemagne. By 1932 the Nazis were said close to bankrupt. It was Franz von Papen who convened a meeting between Hitler and Cologne banker Baron Kurt von Schroeder, with the idea of placing Hitler and the Nazis in his debt. Franz von Papen convinced Kurt von Schroeder and his colleagues that Germany's best hope was a coalition government of Nazis and nationalist rightists. In a brief time some 4 million marks of fund was raised for Hitler's party. Franz von Papen then went to his old friend, President Paul von Hindenburg and suggested he should made Hitler Chancellor and Franz von Papen Hitler's deputy. Hitler and 2 others were the only Nazis in the government formed on January 30, 1933. World War II took place between 1939 and 1945. Hitler died on April 30 1945.

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