China, the world's oldest surviving civilization dating back to the Shang dynasty (1766-1123BC). Founded by Qin Shihuang Di, China's first Emperor in 221BC (some 300 years before Christ), the word Qin pronounced Chin in English, hence the name China. Before the country united, China comprised of 7 feudal states (similar to those feudal states of medieval Europe) "often at war with each other, vying for power and supremacy" during the period 475–221BC. 

In 1972 (or 4670 Lunar Calendar as China began with the reign of Yu the Great in 2207BC), Richard Nixon made a historic visit to mainland China to forge "a better relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China ("Chung-hua Jen-min Kung-ho-kuo" in Chinese). The fall of the Qin dynasty in 1911 paved the way for the Republic of China, led by its first President Dr. Sun Yat-sen (also known as "Kuo Fu" meaning the founding father). He died in 1925. "From 1927 to 1937 is an infinitesimal span in the history of China," it was noted. "But it is a decade that may be richer in history than any century in the story of the oldest civilization the world knows, and the period in question may, when recorded by historians, become not so much the history of China, but the history of its dictator." 

William Ryan of the Associated Press made the observation in 1972, "Under the Chinese sun, there is little that is new." Joseph Alsop of the St. Petersburg Times elaborated in 1966, "In the long, majestic Chinese story...there are 2 repeating rhythms (or patterns): (1) centralization and disintegration, strength and weakness and (2) brand new start." William continued, "The imposing spectacle of Chinese history seems to be forever repeating itself, as if China were acting out each time, in different form, what she went through in the past...China is a land of recurrent tragedy of heroic proportions, a land of many people, a land of calamity, flood, drought and famine. Her whole history is shadowed by 2 great rivers, the Yangtze and the Yellow, called 'China Sorrow'. Time and again there have been great floods and disastrous droughts, bringing suffering on a prodigious scale."

However "the distinctive personality of the land and people evolved through ages of cohering, exploding, splintering and coming together again. Deep in that history are the roots of the current (in 1972) regime." Pearl Buck was an authority on China pointed out in 1951, "The Asiatics have always won their struggles without aggression. Take the Jews for example. Many centuries ago they moved into China and India. In China they were allowed to move about as they pleased, build their synagogues, maintain their families, but the great Chinese tolerance finally overcame them. Today (in 1951) there are no Jews in China, but it is because they have been absorbed into the population. In India another type of tolerance existed. The Jews were allowed to live separately from the remainder of the nations and today (in 1951) as a result, the Hebrews still live in India apart from the remainder of the people." 

Joseph Alsop remarked, "In the era of fully recorded history, there have been 3 new starts (in China): (1) when the Chinese empire was founded by the Qin in the 3rd century BC; (2) when Chinese feudalism was swept away by the Suei in the 6th century AD; and (3) when the communists took power in 1949 (during the Great Cultural Revolution)." George Sokolsky made the comment in 1955, "The concept of China is held by all Chinese, nationalists, communists and just plain people. It is held by the Chinese in Peking, Taipei, Jakarta, Hong Kong and Singapore. Internal strife is not new or unusual for China and it takes on forms in that land which are hardly understandable to the Western mind, for while these revolutions change dynasties, they do not change China." 

Abbe Huc wrote in 1854: "...This country has always been the classic ground of revolutions, and its annals are but the narrative of a long series of popular commotions and political vicissitudes. In the period of time between the year 420, when the Franks entered Gaul, and 1644, when Louis XIV ascended the throne of France and the Tartars established themselves in Peking, a period of 1224 years, China underwent 13 changes of dynasty, all accompanied by frightful civil wars." George concluded, "It cannot be forecast that this will be the destiny of China during the next century (the 21st century). It is impossible for anyone to know what even the next 10 years (1965) will bring, but this much is almost certain: The giant that lay asleep for so long is now awake."

The TV series 'Barnaby Jones' ran between 1973 and 1980. In one scene on the first episode of the series, Barnaby voiced looking out at the North Pacific Ocean, "Quite a view you've got there. Make me think of China. All that water and nothing else between China and us. There she lies. Sleeping giant. Let her sleep. For when she wakes she will shake the world. You know who says that...Napoleon Bonaparte." 

In discussing the 'Revolution in Modern China' in 1966, Dr. J. Roger Stemen believed that "to understand the present Chinese revolution it is necessary to go back to 18th century traditional China during the Qin dynasty. Although this imperial dynasty offered a peaceful, stable government, an increasing population brought social and economic problems which have been the cause of periodic rebellions from the 19th century to the present." Michael Borodin died in 1953 was "once, practically the ruler of the whole south China." George Sokosky recounted, "I knew Borodin and watched him operate from the day he arrived in Shanghai on his way to Canton in 1924. Although a Russian, he had been educated in the United States at Valparaiso, Indiana. He had studied law but he operated a preparatory school in Chicago. I have never been able to discover whether he ever became an American citizen, perhaps because of the many different names he used. Borodin was a theoretical Marxist, a close friend of Karl Radek and Leon Trotzky, although he never joined the Trotzkyist faction of the communist party.

"Borodin's ability was beyond belief. In a short period, he had mastered the intricacies of Chinese politics and had put himself in such a commanding position that those who disagreed with him went swiftly into exile. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was then a sick man and was to die on March 12, 1925...His choice to lead the revolution was Chiang Kai-shek. Assisted by a Russian general who in China called himself Galens, but who became Marshal Bluecher, in command of Soviet Russia's Far Eastern armies, Chiang Kai-shek conquered China."

It should be pointed out, "For 5 years (from 1911 to the start of World War I) Sun Yat-sen desperately sought British financial and economic support for the young republic (of China). But his desperate appeals for British friendship fell on deaf ears, and with Japan (land of the Rising Sun) as the only alternative, Sun Yat-sen turned to Russia." Britain introduced opium to China and won Hong Kong in the Opium War of 1841. Russia after World War I was under Bolshevik rule. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin died in 1924 was said eager to help China and set up a Chinese communist party, Kan Chan Tang, founded by Peking University professors Chen Tu-hsiu and Li Ta-chao. Mao Tse-tung, a librarian and poet was an aide of Li Ta-chao.

Pearl Buck made the point in 1951, "Nothing shows more clearly how futile war is against communism than the case of Chiang Kai-shek." George Sokolsky reminded when Chiang Kai-shek realized "Borodin was actually organizing the conquest of China by Russia (in 1927), determined to break with Borodin, who controlled most of the army and the vast Kuomintang political party which had been penetrated by Chinese communists...To get the kind of technical advice which the Russians had been providing but without the political complications that Borodin brought with him, Chiang Kai-shek turned to Germany, to Colonel Max Bauer and General Alexander von Falkenhausen." It was said, "The December 1936 Sian incident was a turning point in the history of modern China, Chiang Kai-shek was forced to call off his civil war against the communists and devote his energies to resisting Japan, which took Manchuria (which was renamed the state of Manchukuo) in 1931." Dr. Stemen observed Chiang Kai-shek's "Nationalist government patterned itself after the Soviets. However, Chiang Kai-shek separated the nationalists and the communists. Because Japan attacked China (in 1937), the Nationalist party was unable to solve the agrarian (agriculture) problems of the country and by 1940 it was too late for the United States to help the nationalists overthrow communism. Now (in 1966) communism is trying to create a new society with China in the forefront of history."

U.S. trade relations with China dated back to 1784. At the end of the First Opium War (took place between 1839 and 1842), the U.S. and China officially formed diplomatic ties with The Treaty of Wanghia. Mao Tse-tung was said to have greatly admired George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln. During World War II, he told Edgar Snow, "I had first heard of America in an article which told of the American Revolution and which contained a sentence like this: After 8 years of difficult war, Washington won victory and built up his nation." Alexander von Falkenhausen spoke to American reporter Karl von Wiegrand made plain, "That key (China) was once firmly in the hands of America. Not understanding its geopolitical importance or realizing its military and economic potentialities, United States diplomacy and statesmanship let communist Soviet Russia have that vital key (China) to Asia with an indifference that must have been born of incredible ignorance of history, past and foreseeable."

After 1924, Josef Stalin (Stalin meant "Man of Steel") was regarded an "undisputed master of Russia." William told readers, "China probably owes its continuity to its ideographic language. Educated persons from one part of the country could read the language of another part, even though unable to converse. Thus the wide variety of dialects did not erect insurmountable barriers. Mandarin, long the dominant tongue, was an important unifying factor. Other great empires in ancient times were brought down by internal decay or external enemies. China had similar ailments, but she was locked in by mountains and deserts and culturally isolated by her language. Her rulers drew their authority from a 'Mandate of Heaven' concept."

Pearl Buck recalled, "One thing that always strikes me after I have been in the East awhile is the newness of the Western civilization. Yet something has kept those ancient civilizations of the East alive while some of those of the West died and I think it is the family system. It is a democratic system and offers many advantages to the individual. He may be ruled by an autocratic old person in his youth, but he knows that some day, his turn to rule will come. And he also will know what it is like to be ruled harshly. This has a tendency to make him a better ruler. Thus developed the saying of Confucius which is our own Christ's golden rule, 'Don't do unto others what you don't want them to do unto you.'"

Confucianism was not a religion but a set of moral principles drawn up by the scholar Confucius to guide the conduct of rulers (the ruling class). William explained, "For 2500 years, the 'Mandate of Heaven' concept was deeply entrenched. So was the idea that bad conduct by a ruler justified rebellion. This meant rebellion at the top of the social ladder. There was always a wide chasm between the masses and the rulers, who came from a relative handful of families. In theory anyone who aspired to it could become a Mandarin, but it seldom happened that one of the masses could make it. In effect, the rulers ruled by right of birth. China also would, in time, be strongly influenced by the Taoism – Tao means 'the way' – of Lao Tze and by the Buddhism which infiltrated from India. There was no real rivalry between the systems. All were considered links between man and the Lord of Heaven."

Liang Chi-chao, one of the great intellects of the revolution of 1911, had said of China, "My country contains 400 million inhabitants, who all speak what is fundamentally the same language, and use the same script: of no other country can this be said. Her ancient books hand down events which have occurred during more than 30 centuries past: of no other country can this be said."

English scholar Arnold Toynbee told the Associated Press in 1964, "America is becoming a bit of a socialistic country. Russia is becoming a bit of a free enterprise country. I think there will be a compromise between Western civilization and the others. There will be a mixture, a common world civilization that will start by being on a Western basis. It will be altered as different people come into it. I think that what is most likely to happen is that the West will provide the framework for the new world society which will be mainly Western to start, but as the Chinese become more important – and the Africans to some degree – they'll put their civilizations into this. China will overshadow the whole relations of the world. By the year 2000 she'll be pretty well over half the population of the world. The Chinese are just, able, capable and a bit more hard-working than the rest of us. We shall all be thinking about China. It will draw us together. Generally in the past China has expanded peacefully and not by military force. Certainly, China will be the greatest single power in the world by the year 2000. I think we and the Russians will become more and more concerned about China – and this will bring us together. But I don't think the Chinese will try and conquer the world. On the whole they are moderate and sensible and not bloody-minded."

Pearl Buck made the analysis, "We Americans must accept more and more socialism unless we turn to the family type of society. The individual in our society is not self-sufficient but must rely on the government, because in our society he cannot rely upon the family. Therefore, as society becomes more and more complex the individual will have to lean upon the government and that means socialism. I'm in favor of free enterprise, but it's only a sideline to this basic social structure. The Chinese people have not accepted communism. Communism is merely an incident in the revolution of the great nation of China, which is still going on. The communists will not be able to break down the family system, it's too old and too much a part of the Chinese way of life."

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